“All My Babies’ Mamas”: Black Caricatures in the Media



On January 15, 2013 the Oxygen network released a tentative statement about discontinuing the production of All My Babies’ Mamas. This reality TV show would peek into the life of the not-so-well-known U.S. rapper Shawty Lo who currently has 11 children by 10 different women, a 19 year-old girlfriend, and is rumored to have another baby on the way by his ex-girlfriend Jai Jai. Thankfully, on January 16th the network canceled the show after receiving almost 40,000 signatures from Change.org. In response to the cancellation requests, Oxygen V.P. Julie Rothman said, “[this show] is not meant to be a stereotypical representation of everyday life for any one demographic or cross section of society. It is a look at one unique family and their complicated, intertwined life.” Yet, Rothman’s statement leaves lingering questions. With all the unique families out there, why did Oxygen choose this family? Why didn’t Oxygen pursue a celebrity like Bill Clinton for a reality show? The focus could be upon Clinton’s many extra-marital affairs.

In the media, Black families have become representative of dysfunction. Americans have been laughing about stereotypical “Black people” for so long, such comic relief has become an addiction that many, like Julie Rothman, defend. Black parents often find themselves at the receiving end of media-based jokes about Black families. “Baby Daddy”/“Baby Mama” labels have become an omnipresent symbolic representation of broken Black families. The portrayal of unmarried Black mothers becomes yet another way in which dominant group values are juxtaposed against marginalized identities. These so-called “Baby Mamas” are most often caricaturized as being poor- but gold digging- welfare recipients who want nothing more than money, child support, and the latest hairstyle. Media portrayals frequently present uncaring mothers who leave their children in abject poverty while they go to receive beauty treatments or find another man to victimize in an effort to acquire more child support. These deleterious stereotypes become crystallized and reinforced through what the media decides to broadcast and rebroadcast to the public. For a more thorough discussion about media stereotypes of African Americans (see The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America by Robert M. Entman and Andrew Rojecki (University of Chicago Press, 2001).

Now back to Shawty Lo. There are men from various racial/ethnic backgrounds in the U.S. who father children out of wedlock, including Levi Johnston (the father of Sara Palin’s grandson) and Clint Eastwood. Eastwood has seven children by five different women though he has only married twice. Yet a show called “All Clint’s Babies’ Mamas” ridiculing Eastwood would never occur to reality show producers. And the mothers of Eastwood’s children would not become sideshow attractions to his extra-marital exploits. Why? Because he is White + Male + Affluent and in the U.S. we humanize those who fit these intersecting categories regardless of their transgressions. Shawty Lo represents those who are Black + Male + “Ghetto” and persons who fit these intersecting categories tend to be reduced to the transgressions they make.

In “Al My Babies’ Mamas” the mothers of Carlos Walker’s (aka Shawty Lo’s) children are cast as laughable, sideshow attractions in a nation where the disproportionately high number of Black single mothers is no laughing matter. In 2011, it was estimated by the Annie E. Casey Data Center that 67% of Black children grow up in single parent households; and 38.4% of children in Black female-headed households live in poverty according to 2011 statistics from the U.S. Census Bureau. Given Julie Rothman’s claims above, why didn’t Oxygen take the more humanistic route of creating a documentary on the struggles of single mothers instead of a reality show that ridicules them? A documentary would do a far better job of presenting lives that are “complicated” and “intertwined”. “All My Babies’ Mamas” would have only served to keep African Americans wrapped in and warped by age-old dehumanizing stereotypes.

Nicole DeLoatch is a doctoral student in the Department of Sociology at the University of Maryland at College Park. L. Janelle Dance is an Associate Professor of Sociology and Ethnic Studies at the University of Nebraska and a visiting scholar at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Lund University in Sweden.

Comments

  1. cordoba blue

    Just a thought that I’ve mentioned before. Most of the ridiculing of African Americans that I’ve witnessed in the media in the last 25 years has been perpetuated by black people: black actors, directors, producers.
    The character of Grandma Medea created and acted by Tyler Perry is a prime example.Here’s a synopsis about the “pistol-packin’ Mama Medea” in the movie Diary of a Mad Black Woman:

    “Genres and genders collide in this unusual mix of Christian soap opera and raunchy cross-dressing comedy. Tyler Perry adapts his own play–one of a series wherein he personally portrays Grandma Madea, an overweight, no-nonsense, old, Christian, African-American woman. In DIARY OF A MAD BLACK WOMAN, the main character is Helen (Kimberly Elise), whose wealthy, abusive husband Charles (Steve Harris) kicks her out of their mansion after 18 years of marriage. Luckily Grandma Madea is there to offer some tough love. When a gangster’s bullet later makes Charles a cripple, Helen has to decide between love (i.e. wreaking Madea-sanctioned old testament vengeance) and Christian duty. The movie then progresses in two directions: the well-acted dramatic side, with Helen getting her life together thanks to the love of the dreamy Orlando (YOUNG AND THE RESTLESS star Shemar Moore) and her hospitalized momma (Cecily Tyson); and the go-for-broke humor side, with Harris whooping it up in unfettered glee as the chainsaw-wielding, pistol-packing Madea (he also plays several other roles). Whatever one’s take on the oddness of the combination, there is no denying the power of Perry’s unique mixture of cross-dressing outrageousness and Christian good intent, or the fine acting talent of the entire cast.”
    Note that the husband Charles is abusive (are black men abusive?) and that a gangster’s bullet makes Charles a cripple (black people are prone to getting shot by gangsters?)and Grandma Medea wields a chainsaw and a pistol (black women usually do that?)
    What about the antics of cross-dressing Eddie Murphy? We are taken into an entire family of female Eddie Murphies, young teenage Eddie Murphies, old man Eddie Murphies and the whole family doesn’t miss one black stereotype. They are all covered. Directed by Murphy, acted by Murphy, produced by Murphy.
    The television program In Living Color featured dozens of black stereotypes. “Homie don’t play dat” the clown. The homeless black man who lived in a cardboard box. Who wrote these scripts? The black actor, writer and producer Keenan Wayans. Here’s a synopsis:

    “A turning point in mainstream television, IN LIVING COLOR was that rare comedy series whose humor appealed to–and made fun of–a very diverse audience. A sketch comedy show with one of the most talented ensemble casts in TV history, it was created by Keenan Ivory Wayans, and starred Keenan, his brothers Shawn, Marlon, and Damon, and their sister, Kim. Popular recurring characters included Damon Wayans’s Homey D. Clown, a criminal clown from the ghetto, and Jim Carrey’s Firemarshall Bill, whose maniacal laugh became common parlance among fans. In the fourth season, the show took on contemporary issues, such as a spoof of Bill Clinton and a skit about gays in the military.”
    It appears that when white producers and writers ceased making humiliating media presentations about black people, African Americans themselves took up the gauntlet and started creating black characters such as Homey D. Clown, a “criminal clown from the ghetto”. Why is this?

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