Recently, two articles in important sociological journals have contributed further to the white-framed sociological discourse of race. The latest edition of Sociological Theory (June 2012) published Shiao, Bode, Beyer, and Selvig’s “The Genomic Challenge to the Social Construction of Race,” an essay that argues for reinvigorating biological understandings—more specifically, the “biosocial causation”—of race. A number of problems accompany this piece, the primary being its white-framed perception of races contorted by biologism/eugenics and a pained attempt to be “scientific.” Reverting to Eurocentric scientific racism is a sign of the times, increasingly used to de-legitimate the status, societal position, and social, economic, cultural, political-legal rights and empowerment of people of color.
Possibly more alarming than the Sociological Theory (ST) piece on race is a short essay in the July 2012 issue of Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews (CS) [pdf]. The Editor’s Remarks on Booker T. Washington and Robert E. Park’s The Man Farthest Down subtly frame racial discourse from a white perspective. Indeed, this type of “under-the-radar” white framing appears to be more problematic than more obvious forms discovered in the ST article, because it 1) often goes undetected, thus unchallenged; 2) reinforces dominant white-framed beliefs subconsciously and piecemeal; and 3) often passes as “universal,” “objective” (nonbiased), and therefore “race neutral” exposition.
To grasp the white framing of race operating in the CS Editor’s Remarks, it is helpful to have some background knowledge of Washington and Park. Both were extremely important in developing mainstream ideas about race in society (Washington) and sociology (Park). Washington was the most influential African American leader of the early twentieth century, who espoused a social philosophy of a black socio-economic self-sufficiency, evading racial conflict and criticism of white racism, and pragmatic accommodation to whites in power. After acting as Washington’s secretary, Park helped establish Chicago School sociology and lead the study of race in academic sociology. Park’s framework for understanding race, with its focus on the four-stage race relations cycle and Euro-assimilation, continues to define the sociology of race.
As the Editor’s Remarks observe, “the four-stage race-relations cycle [is] still taught to undergraduates.” Park is credited with shifting the study of race away from biological to cultural explanations of races and differences among races. However, this claim of Park’s departure from social Darwinism is largely refuted by a number of race scholars, such Ralph Ellison (1964), John Stanfield (1985), and Vernon Williams, Jr. (1996), among others. They point out that Park espoused racial prejudices when discussing whites and people of color and that his explanations of the segregation of races are intellectual tools easily used to justify white supremacy. Park assumed that all “primitive” races (i.e., people of color) aspire to assimilate to the social world and behaviors of the “civilized” white race.
Ethnicity, culture and assimilation paradigms developed by Park, and then Gunnar Myrdal, Milton Gordon, the Nathan Glazer-Patrick Moynihan team, and practiced by many contemporary sociologists, outline an unrealistic depiction of race. The study of ethnicity and culture routinely avoids discussion of ideational and material realities of race/s, the white-imposed hierarchy and systemic ordering of racial groups, and societal effects of institutional, structural and systemic racism. Ethnic and cultural studies are normally framed from a white perspective that neglects crucial socio-historical differences between European migrants and migrants of color from different parts of the globe and tends to position European cultures over other worldwide cultures. In the US, white ethnic groups have largely disappeared and assumed a generic white identity (see the ethno-racial categories listed in the US Census or any job application), whereas ethnic groups of color are subject to hyper-critique, problematic categorization and division, and stigmatization that is inherently Eurocentric.
Assimilation theory bespeaks a colonialist mentality and centuries-old white supremacist attitudes. Assimilation theory assumes Euro-domination and justifies Eurocentrism, a belief in dominance of European models of society and human relations (“civilization”), and social practices that reinforce white elites’ power interests, ideologies and cultural mores. It is clear that the stages of assimilation Park outlines mirror the steps of European colonization (see Lyman 1973, Steinberg 2007). As the assimilation theorist Milton Gordon illustrated with the concept Anglo-conformity, assimilation has long had specific meaning and connotation: assimilation to the European ideals, behaviors, and culture of Anglo-Saxons. While Anglo-Saxons once sat atop the racial hierarchy, a number of other white ethnic groups have joined the ranks of Anglo-elite and formed a broader based white power elite. Today, a more general conformity to whiteness or white racial framing has replaced the outdated and now too-limited understanding and practice of Anglo-conformity. Like ethnicity and culture paradigms, the assimilation paradigm largely omits serious discussion of racial conflict, the societal effects and human costs of racism, and the well-organized racist ideologies and practices of the group that has the most power to define race, whites, and especially elite whites.
Washington and Park’s ideas about race reflect key elements of white-framed sociology and support a Eurocentric perspective of race. Despite his contributions to the black community, Washington failed to discuss the fundamentally unequalized racial structures and racism in the US. Elite whites’ funding for the Tuskegee Institute, the black educational institution Washington founded, demanded he remain silent about systemic racism and the powerful whites and white institutions that uphold racist society. Instead, in return for whites’ financial, political and media support, Washington downplayed and misrepresented struggles of African Americans, highlighting problems of black agency (individual and group) rather than societal problems associated with systemically racist social system and the racist institutional structures created by whites that prop that system (W.E.B. Du Bois, 1903).
It is surprising that the CS Editor’s Remarks reintroduced Washington and Park’s sketchy writings on race, considering the many holes in Park’s sociological theories and Washington’s social philosophy. Park explained away Eurocentrism, while Washington downplayed it. It is contemporary sociologists’ job to see through and then discredit out-dated, ethnocentric race theories of Park and the propagandist, apologist racial rhetoric of Washington.
Thanks for the sharp points, Sean. Mainstream social science is pretty well captured by an unreflective white racial framing , indeed. And the level of social science illiteracy about the racist classics of Park and Washington (who spoke/thought out of the white frame to please whites) , as you point out, is staggering for the year 2012!
I read Blindspots around Colorado’s Batman massacre. I don’t know where to put this so I’ll put it here.
Tim Wise once asked,”Why should every black person have to represent his entire race?” That means if one black person does anything negative, can we justly claim,”That’s what (all) black people do. Or that’s how (all) black people think.” No, we cannot. Because this is the crux of racism. Drawing a conclusion based on the acts of one individual in that race and generalizing it to all members of that race.
Thus, if a white man commits an act of mass murder, we do not claim,”Yeah. That’s what white men do when they get angry.So typical.” Instead, we frame the incident as the white man being an outlier, a loner, who is not a reflection of his race in general. We do not draw ridiculous conclusions based on his race for the reasons he took said actions. Why can we not give other ethnic groups the same consideration?
Italians lose their temper because they are “temperamental and hot-blooded”. Mexicans take lunch breaks because they are lazy. Jewish people work in the banking industry because “they’re good with money handling”. Germans are wonderful engineers because Germans are meticulous and detail oriented people. Spanish people like living in South America because they are “warm-blooded”. LOL! Whatever that means! I heard someone say that once and I thought, “What the hell does that mean anyway? It doesn’t even remotely make sense!”
When I was growing up in the 70’s I heard these older white racial frame remarks frequently. Of course, I also heard constant comments about African Americans that attempted to pigeon hole any and all actions of black people.
Even at a young age I realized this was all a lot of nonsense. People are not genetically inclined to be “good with money” or “meticulous” or “anger easily”. These are individual traits that must be viewed as such. Even in my child’s world I knew, for example, Jewish kids who were terrible at math or German kids who were not at all meticulous or Italian kids who never raised their voice, much less lost their temper.
I also knew many black kids who would rather read than play basketball. (Wow! Yes, it’s true). Hope the Colorado incident will indeed throw light on the way actions of whites and the actions of the still-marginalized ethnic groups are framed and interpreted.
Somehow I think it makes some people feel superior to judge whole ethnic groups in a negative manner. The less educated people are, and the more insecure they are, I’ve noticed, the more they seem to pass judgment in a smug illogical fashion.
That said, I had a friend who’s father was a college professor. Wow! Every time I visited her house, he always had some smug comment about one ethnic group or other. He was the biggest bigot and the man was teaching college classes! I was so glad to hear years later that the guy was fired. I never knew why, but I can guess he said the wrong thing in front of one of the “ethnic” alumni contributers! Uh-oh. Finally he crossed the line, and it’s sad it continued for as long as it did without someone calling him out.