The Simon Wiesenthal Center (SWC) has released its annual report on “digital terrorism and hate” which finds that racism and antisemitism are flourishing online. Their report asserts that there has been a 25 percent rise in the past year in the number of “problematic” social networking groups on the Internet ( photo credit: rosefirerising).
In assessing the extent of hate online, the SWC casts a wider net than other monitoring organization (such as the Southern Poverty Law Center or the Anti-Defamation League) to include sites that promote “racial violence, anti-semitism, homophobia, hate music and terrorism.” And, the report encompasses a variety of forms of online communicatio such as Web sites, social networking groups, portals, blogs, chat rooms, videos and games that promote hate.
While it’s hard to measure such phenomena with any precision, there are other indications that racism, and other forms of hatred, are flouring online. For example, there’s been growing attention on the rise of racist groups on social networking sites such as Facebook, where roups with names such as ‘get all the Paki’s out of England’ with hundreds of members, are common. People in the U.S. take racism online (and off) much less seriously than people in Europe and other industrialized Western nations for a variety of reasons that I discuss at length in Cyber Racism. Typical of the European attitudes is indicated by a British MP (Labour) Denis MacShane, who told The Daily Telegraph recently:
“The way you defeat extremism, intolerance, prejudice and racism is to atomise it and make people feel that even if they think racist thoughts they can’t say it openly. But websites like Facebook have unfortunately allowed people to come together in one space and say, ‘there are people out there like me’. That is something that worries me greatly. For all the good social networking sites do, they also allow people to express prejudice that in a civilised society should be kept under lock and key.”
Although I certainly agree that racism online is flourishing, I take issue with the way that this typically gets reported. For instance, this Reuters story about the SWC report that’s being widely quoted in a variety of other news sources, starts this way:
“Militants and hate groups increasingly use social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace and YouTube as propaganda tools to recruit new members….” [emphasis added]
Calling what happens with the growth of hate online “recruiting” is to misunderstand the way the Internet works. People are not recruited into hate groups online any more than paying customers are recruited by sex workers (aka, prostitutes) on Craigslist. This sort of discourse (“recruit”) is often used alongside words like “lure,” and this is often used when describing the oddly coupled threat of white supremacists and child pornography online. When reporters and others talk about using the Internet to “recruit” or “lure” unsuspecting innocents online, they misperceive a fundamental feature of the Internet: the search engine. People go online and search for information. The reason online racism (and other forms of hate) are flourishing is because lots of people are searching for that sort of content, and a smaller group of people is creating racist content.
If we really want to do something collectively to address the growth of racism online, then we need to address the underlying appeal of racist content by those who create it and those who seek it out.